A textile is any kind of woven, knitted, braided or tufted cloth, or a non-woven fabric. Textile also refers to the yarns, threads and wools that can be spun, woven, tufted, tied and otherwise used to manufacture cloth .
The production of textiles is an ancient art, whose speed and scale of production has been altered almost beyond recognition by mass-production and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques.
Fiber is the smallest part of a fabric. It is an individual, fine, long, and hair-like substance, it has many wearing characteristics.
Fibers can be classified as natural fibers and man-made fibers.
- Cotton, flax, silk, wool and asbestos are ordinary natural fibers.
- Polyester, acrylic,nylon, polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl, polyvinyl chloride, spandex, rayon, and acetate are popular man- made fibers.
Textile fiber has many properties:
- Elongation/Elastic Recovery
- Resiliency/Wrinkle Resistance
- Dimensional Stability
- Moisture Regain
- Moisture Permeability
- Thermal Insulation
- Water Repellency
- Static Charge
- Heat Resistance/Flammability
- Chemical/Biological Resistance
Fibers usually are grouped and twisted together into a continuous strand called yarns.
Yarns are classified as following:
- Simple Yarns
- Staple yarn & Filament yarn
- Complex Yarns
- Textured Yarns
- Method of texturing
- Effects of texturing
- Blended Yarns
Spun (staple) yarns are composed of relatively short length of fibers twisted or spun to hold them together. The short length of fibers are called staple fibers. This staple is made into yarn by mechanical processes, which first make the fibers more or less parallel, then alternately pull and twist them. High twist is necessary to press the fibers together to give strength to the resulting yarn.
Filament yarns are made from filament fibers–whether natural or man-made–is a simple and direct process. Silk is the only natural filament fiber, and the size of silk yarns depends on the number of cocoons reeled off at one time.
The yarns are then used to make various textile materials; for example, woven fabrics, knitted fabrics, and lace, fibers can also be used directly to make a fabric without first being made into yarns, which is called nonwoven fabrics.
Woven fabrics are made by interlacing two sets of yarns at right angles to each other.
Knitted fabrics may be described as structures produced by the inter-loopings of yarns.
In actual construction of the fabric, loops are formed; then new loops are drawn through those previously formed.
Non-woven are defined as textile materials made directly from fibers and held together as a fabric by adhesives, heat fusion (if thermoplastic fibers) or through entanglement of the fibers. These materials are generally flat, flexible, porous sheet structures with high surface areas-to-weight characteristics.
An ancient Roman weaver would have no problem recognizing a plain weave, twill, or satin. Many textiles have been in use for millennia, while other artificial fibers are recent inventions.
The range of fibers has increased in the last 100 years. The first synthetics were made in the 1920s and 1930s. Textiles can be made from a variety of materials. The following is a partial list of the materials that can be used to make textiles.
The textile industry, with its extremely long and rich history, has had a massive impact on the world economy and the very evolution of modern society. Weaving is believed to be one of the oldest surviving crafts in the world today, the actual origins of which are thought to date back to Neolithic times 12,000 years ago.
Even before that time, the same principle was used to interlace branches and twigs to form protective fences, shelters and baskets. Once the practicality of interlacing these kinds of materials was understood, further experimentation with other natural materials probably produced the first basic fabrics and cloths.
4. Fiber history
History of the principal natural fibers used in textiles for apparel and home fashion
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The history of U.S. Production of the principal man-made fibers used in textiles for apparel and home furnishing.
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